King, Kingdom, Kingship are the words for these readings.
Scholars surmise that the section in Revelation used in
these readings draws from this section in
verse 13b one like a Son of man coming,
on the clouds of heaven;
verse 13c when he reached the Ancient One
and was presented before him
verse 14 the one like a Son of Man received dominion, glory, and kingship
all peoples, nations, and languages serve him.
His dominion is an everlasting dominion
that shall not be taken away,
his kingship shall not be destroyed.
verses 13c and 14a
The Vulgate (circa 410): et usque ad Antiquum dierum pervenit … et data sun ei potestas et honor et regnum
Questions about translations often arise from the Vulgate.
Antiquum dierum does not look like Ancient One. The translation that seems
best is most venerable from the New
Jerusalem. Since son of man
has a special meaning in
Douay-Rheims (1582-1610): and he came even to the Ancient of days … And he gave him power, and glory, and a kingdom
King James (1611): and came to the Ancient of days … And there was given him dominion and glory, and a kingdom
New American (1970): when he reached the Ancient one…He received dominion, glory, and kingship
New Jerusalem (1985): He came to the One most venerable…On him was conferred rule, honour and kingship
Psalm 93:1, 1-2, 5
This psalm, a royal psalm, dates from the time of the monarchy. A scholar explains,
Despite the role that David’s historical conquests may have played in the elevation of Yahweh to imperial rank, with very few exceptions it is not those historical victories but the primeval mythological victories that provide the primary religious language for praising Yahweh as king (Psalms 93:1-3; 95:4-5; 96:5, 10).… the habitable world (Psalm 24:1-2) and God’s throne itself rest upon the subdued waters of chaos (Psalm 29:10; 93:1-4).
This Psalm is also available in #16 Antiphons and Psalms in Funerals at #5.
verse 1a(Rx) The Lord is king: he is robed in majesty
verse 1 The LORD is king, in splendor robed
robed is the LORD and girt about with strength
verses 3-5 The floods have lifted up, O LORD,
the floods have lifted up their voice;
the floods have lifted up their roaring,
More majestic than the thunders of mighty waters,
more majestic than the waves of the sea,
majestic on high is the LORD!
Stuhlmueller translates verse 1:
The LORD is king, he is robed in majesty; / the LORD is robed, he is girded with strength.
For verse 5, Stuhlmueller has:
Your decrees are very sure;
Holiness befits your house,
O LORD, forevermore
The Lectionary has:
verse 5 Your decrees are worthy of trust indeed;
holiness befits your house,
O LORD, for length of days.
Stuhlmueller concludes, “In this final verse the psalmist offers a word of confidence about God’s Law and God’s house, and reaffirms the basic meaning of the sacred Hebrew name for God, YHWH: the one who is always there with you.” In a footnote, Stuhlmueller offers a grammatical explanation about what “to be” or “to be present” means. “I am who am” can also be translated, “I will be who I will be” in the sense of action in progress.
the firstborn of the dead and ruler of the kings of the earth.
To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood
verse 6 who has made us into a kingdom, priests for his God and Father,
to him be glory and power forever and ever. Amen
verse 7 … Yes. Amen
verses 6 and 7
The Vulgate (circa 410): et fecit nos regnum … Etiam, amen.
This is the key to all the readings.
Translating etiam as yes, is unusual, yet proper. The sense of indeed or all right, even yes, is also legitimate.
Douay-Rheims (1582-1610): and made us to be a kingdom … Amen.
King James (1611): and hath made us kings … Amen.
Jerusalem (1966): and made us a line of kings … Amen.
New American (1970): who has made us into a kingdom … Yes. Amen.
New Jerusalem (1985): and made us a kingdom of Priests … Amen.
Mark 11:9, 10
verse 10 Blessed
is the kingdom of our father
This section of John, Chapters 18-20, is a seventh sign, the lifting up of Jesus in death and resurrection, a sign parallel with the Egyptians escaping through the Red Sea. This section is also part of the very positive and more inclusive Book of Glory, 13:1—20:31.
“Are you the King of the Jews?”
If my kingdom did belong to this world,
my attendants would be fighting
to keep me from being handed over to the Jews,
But as it is, my kingdom is not here.”
verse 37 So
For this I was born and for this I came into the world,
To testify to the truth.
Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice.”
verses 36 and 37d
The Vulgate (circa
The meaning of kingdom or regnum is explained above in Revelation. The world or mundo is that the sense of cosmos comes in three versions, neutral, as here, and negative, as in worldly, and positive, as in go out into the whole world. Counter-cultural preaching, preaching seems to exempt Catholics from civic responsibilities and unremittingly and inappropriately embarrass elected Catholic officials.
Confronted with a shaken Magisterium, the educated Faithful have a vocation to search for the truth in the face of countervailing politics. Such vocation objects to a “pray, pay, and obey” Catholicism. This translation about openness to truth, not to be heard preached from the altar, does hearten the Faithful, forced to think for themselves in the formation of their own conscience, especially as related to human sexuality. Saint Augustine writes, “That He (Jesus) said: `Everyone that is of the truth, refers to the grace by which He calls us according to His purpose.’”
King James (1611): Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now[sic] is my kingdom not from hence .… Every one that is of the truth
The end of the liturgical year focuses on priorities. Kingdoms set priorities. The issue rests in the secrets of the soul, secrets modern psychology reveals of which the soul itself is often unaware. This means that the setting of priorities merits frequent reexamination.
For more on sources, besides the footnotes, see the Appendix file.
from the Catena Aurea, Augustine: The Sunday
Sermons of the Great Fathers: A Manual of Preaching, Spiritual Reading and
Meditation: Volume Four: From the Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost to the
Twenty-fourth and Last Sunday after Pentecost, tr. and ed. M. F.
 Stanley B. Marrow, “KosmoV in John, the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 64, No. 1 (January 2002), 96-97.
Exposition from the Catena Aurea, Augustine: The
Sunday Sermons of the Great Fathers: A Manual of Preaching, Spiritual Reading
and Meditation: Volume Four: From the Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost to the
Twenty-fourth and Last Sunday after Pentecost, tr. and ed. M. F.
Exposition from the Catena Aurea,