The Gospel shows that forces of evil must appear before Jesus returns to earth in glory.  Theologians wonder what is holding back those forces.  I would suggest the intersession of Mary, the Mother of God.  The Marion apparitions that I follow are taking place in the vicinity of Elyria, Ohio, where mail is received.  The exact address is 37137 Butternut Ridge Road, Eaton Township, Ohio.  The zip code is 44039 in Elyria, although the actual place is Eaton Township.  The phone number is 440-327-8006.  The relevant web site is  Besides Mary, who lives in the hereafter, I would also suggest the ministries such as JustFaith, which live in the here and now.


Annotated Bibliography

Material above the double line draws from material below the double line.  Those uninterested in scholarly details should stop reading here.  If they do, however, they may miss some of the fun stuff scholars are digging up.


First Reading: Malachi 3:19-20a

Malachi is calling for Judgment.


Responsorial Psalm: Psalm 98 5-6, 7-8, 9

The Responsorial Antiphon for Psalm 98 calls to rule the earth with justice.


Margaret Barker, The Great High Priest: The Temple Roots of Christian Liturgy[1]

Barker writes that Psalm 98, “marks the victory of the LORD, the King, and the whole creation rejoices as he comes to judge the world.”


Second Reading: 2 Thessalonians 3:7-12

The Greek to which I paid special attention, 2 Thess 3:8, was day, in we worked … day and night.


Because scholars have written so little over the last three years on these readings, time is available for me to do more with the Greek.  The marginalia in the Greek text[2] identify similar verses in other Biblical books.  “An exclamation mark indicates where a principal reference list of passages related by a common theme or expression is found.”  The lists below indicate, first, places in the Greek to find the lists; second, the places themselves.  I do not know what to make of these references.  For the time being, I am simply making the references available.


2 Thessalonians      Other                                           Sunday Lectionary Reading

Verse                                                                         #          Sunday         page

7        imitate us      1 Corinthians 11:1                        77 B          Ordinary 6     571

                               Be imitators of me

                               1Th 4:16                                      154A          Ordinary 32   943

                               Ph 3:17                                        27C    Lent 3                   168

                               Ph 4:9                                          139A          Ordinary 27   872

                               1Th 1:6                                        148A          Ordinary 30   918

                               2Th 3:7, 9                                    159C          Today           970

                               H 6:12                                         unused

                               H 13:7                                         unused

                               E 5:1                                           unused

                               1Th 2:14                                      unused

                               G 4:12                                         unused


8        not to burden any of you

                               1 Corinthians 10:33                      77B          Ordinary 6     571

                               not seeking my own benefit         

                               1Th 4:24                                      unused

                               1Th 9:20-22                                 unused


9        a model for you                                               

                               Philippians 3:17                           27C    Lent 2                   168

                               the model you have in us

Verse                                                                         #          Sunday         page

                               1 K 11:1 !                                     unused

                               1Th 1:7                                        148A          Ordinary 30   918

                               2Th 3:9                                        159C          Today           970

                               1T 4:12                                        unused

                               Tt 2:7                                           unused

                               1P 5:3                                          unused


Alleluia: Luke 21:28

          Luke 21:12

          Hans-Josef Klauck, O.F.M., review of Paul Metzger, Katechon: II Thess 2, 1-12 im Horizont apokalyptischen Denkens[3]

          Klauck uses Luke 21:12, before all this happens … as an example of what some scholars use to identify what is holding back the forces of evil, which in turn, are holding back the return of Jesus.  Klauck surmises that the author of 2 Thessalonians is referring to the Roman Empire.


Gospel: Luke21:5-19



For more on sources see the Appendix file.  Personal Notes are on the web site at

[1] London: T & T Clark International: A Continuum imprint, 2003 119.


[2] Nestle-Aland,: Novum Testamentum: Graece et Latine: Textum Graecum post Eberhard et Erwin Nestle communiter ediderunt Barbara et Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger: Textus Latinus Novae Vulgatae Bibliorum Sacrorum Editioni debetur: Utriusque textus apparatum criticum recensuerent et editionem novis curis elaboraverunt Barbara et Kurt Aland una cum Instituto Studiorum Textus Novi Testamenti Monasterii Westphaliae (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft 1999) Editio XXVII 34*, 541.


[3] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 68, No. 2 (April 2006) 340.