These Lectionary readings help the Faithful with humility as a counter-balance to self-confidence. Self-confidence is appropriate as the Faithful bear witness to the works of God all about them, not only in a passive sense, but also in an active sense as they spread the Word of the Lord. Not only self-confidence, but also humility is appropriate because the very Word of God passes through the ages in mixed, uncertain manuscripts. Love is about accepting crosses of uncertainty as something pleasing to God.
At this point, I am beginning to examine the Greek with a new, different care, noting the Critical Signs [a technical term] in the “apparatus [another technical term],” that is, notations, about what the various original manuscripts hold. The Greek text for 1 Thessalonians has at least nine different areas where the original manuscripts, because of differences, carry some doubt. Because love is a moving target, humility and self-confidence are appropriate for examining the Word of God. These readings are about love.
Critical Signs for 1 Thessalonians 1:5c-10 indicate
(1) a location were one or more words, sometimes a whole verse, is inserted by
the witnesses [manuscripts] cited. An
example of this is 1 Thessalonians 1:6, where the Holy is not in the Greek, thereby reading with joy from spirit rather than with joy from the Holy Spirit.
Continuing with other Critical Signs: (2) the word following in the text
is omitted by the manuscripts cited. That
mark occurs three times. (3) The word or
verse of text is transposed occurs once.
(4) The word following in the text is replaced with one or more words by
the manuscripts cited, four places. (5)
The end of the omitted text, noted once.
Presentation of Variant
“you are become a model for all *** in Macedonia and in Achaia ” distinguishes the two provinces, while immediately afterwards the apostle goes on to say “for the Word of the Lord has been spread by you not only *** in Macedonia and Achaia” [the Greek omits the second in the] but in every place” where the same two provinces are taken together as opposed to “everywhere (else).”
Zerwick means that
1 Thessalonians 1:8
Lectionary (1998): but in every place
The Vulgate (circa 410): sed in omni loco
Douay-Rheims (1582-1610): but also in every place
New American (1970): but also in every place
New Jerusalem (1985): has spread everywhere
1 Thessalonians is about the risen
Matthew 22:34-40: sets out the two basic components
Matthew recognizes for the People of God, the Faithful. First is doing the will of the Father, often
not an easy task, since Church traditions change through time.
History reminds us that over the centuries and the years the church has changed its teaching on a number of significant issues—such as slavery, usury, freedom, religious freedom, human rights, democracy, torture, the right of the defendant to remain silent, the death penalty, the intention and role of procreation in marital sexuality, the nature of the family, and the role of women in society.
While reaching out to the Pharisees, as the will of
The Pharisees ask
Jesus, like Moses (Exodus 19—24), is a mediator of covenant
between God and the Faithful. As the
Faithful age or fail in health, they become more aware of their relationship
with their Creator. Jesus helps mediate
the relationship. Appropriately,
therefore, Care of the Sick makes this passage from
Exodus 32—34 is about
bears on the Black Apostolate and through the Black Apostolate to everyone else
in the United States. Verse 20 refers to
aliens, something even native
Americans, Indians, have become in what used to be their own land. Showing compassion toward the suffering people
Psalm is about humility and self-confidence. Humility belongs to the fact that, while the Lectionary documents verse 51, the Lectionary omits the specific mention of David in that verse. Saint Jerome includes the Word David in his translation. Psalm 18 involves a renewal of the covenant with David.
The Lectionary also uses Psalm 18 in Reading
152B for the Thirty-First Sunday in Ordinary Time, Cycle B. Verse 51 appears
differently in Reading 152B, in that the first Word, you is capitalized there, but not here. While the difference is insubstantial, one
wonders whether the reason for the difference has anything to do with the
Another aspect of humility is disagreement among scholars about when to date Psalm 18. Uncertainty about the date of psalms is not unusual. What is unusual is one scholar thinking the psalm is very old, dating from the time of the monarchy, and another thinking the psalm is comparatively recent, the First Century B.C. The difference would be about 900 years. Psalm 18, however, is full of self-confidence that God will protect his people, assuming they follow his commandments.
As a final note, my problem is unconditional love conjoined with the wrath mentioned above at 1 Thessalonians 1:10. Political correctness calls for unconditional love. Focusing on wrath, hardship is punishment for not loving, a means for bringing the Faithful back to the right track. The reality is that hardship is not necessarily punishment for anything.
For more on sources see the Appendix file. Personal Notes are on the web site at www.western-civilization.com/CBQ/Personal%20Notes
 Nestle-Aland: Novum Testamentum: Graece et Latine: Textum Graecum post Eberhard et Erwin Nestle communiter ediderunt Barbara et Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger: Textus Latinus Novae Vulgatae Bibliorum Sacrorum Editioni debetur: Utriusque textus apparatum criticum recensuerent et editionem novis curis elaboraverunt Barbara et Kurt Aland una cum Instituto Studiorum Textus Novi Testamenti Monasterii Westphaliae (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft 1999) Editio XXVII.
 Maximilian Zerwick, S.J., English Edition adapted from the Fourth Latin Edition by Joseph Smith, S.J., Scripta Pontificii Instituti Biblico—114—Biblical Greek (Roma: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1994) 59.
 *** stands for Greek words that follow, omitted here, but translated from the Lectionary.
 John Kloppenborg, “An Analysis of the Pre-Pauline Formula 1 Cor 15:3b-5 In Light of Some Recent Literature,” the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 3 (July 1978) 364.
 Randall E. Otto, “The Prophets and Their Perspective,” the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 63, No. 2 (April 2001), 234.
 Wendell E. Langley, S.J., “The Parable of the Two Sons (Matthew -32) against Its Semitic and Rabbinic Backdrop,” the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 67, No 2 (April 2005) 242.
 Jack Dean Kingsbury, “The Developing Conflict between Jesus and the Jewish Leaders in Matthew’s Gospel: a Literary-Critical Study,” the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 1 (January 1987) 61.
 The Roman Ritual: Revised by Decree of the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council and Published by Authority of Pope Paul VI: Pastoral Care of the Sick: Rites of Anointing and Viaticum: Approved for use in the dioceses of the United States of America by the National Conference of Catholic Bishops and Confirmed by the Apostolic See: Prepared by International Commission on English in the Liturgy: a Joint Commission of Catholic Bishops’ Conferences (New York: Catholic Book Publishing Co. 1983) 305.
 Melody D. Knowles, “The Flexible Rhetoric of Retelling: The Choice of David in the Texts of the Psalms,” the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 67, No 2 (April 2005) 238-237.