Roman Missal[1]

 

I. Introduction

During the week of May 7-12, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) threw its political weight around in two directions, first, against Barack Obama with its attack on the Sisters supporting Obamacare; second, against Mitt Romney, with its attack on the budget prepared by the Wisconsin Senator, Paul Ryan.[2]  The USCCB was decidedly less exercised against Romney than Obama.[3]

 

The USCCB is attacking Obama through the Leadership Conference of Women Religious (LCWR) as their surrogate.  The USCCB does not realize that Obama rendered the USCCB politically powerless, with Rick Santorum as the USCCB political surrogate.  By forbidding the women control over their agenda, the USCCB looks like it is vulnerable, with the Republicans, to the charge of a War on Women.[4]

 

With the following blogger “LFA” comment, the USCCB also looks vulnerable to racism.[5]

 

I never thought I would see the day when we would elect an African American as President of the United States, thankfully that day had come. . . . now I can say I never thought I would see the day when the Church had become irrelevant to so many.  Now this may scare the pajamas off some of our more traditional/orthodox brothers and sisters but you know what I think . . . .God’s will be done!

 

So far, we have reviewed pages 1-39 at the beginning of the 2011 Roman Missal.  Our interest is in using the Missal as an effective prayer book.  Part of that interest includes identifying discrepancies between what the Missal directs and how those in the pews react.  We are also detecting an inappropriate pride of power associated with the so-called “War on Women.”  The early Church did ordain women,[6] Papal assertions to the contrary notwithstanding.

 

How to pray with the intellectually insulting language of the illiterate 2011 Missal, requires recognition and admission of the Papal insult.  Once that recognition is in place, those of the Faithful remaining in the Church, need to (1) paraphrase the prayers into their own standard American English and (2) contemplate the Godhead directly, without the use of words.  (1) and (2) may be combined or used separately.  The following observations are meant to help.

 

The Missal refers to the “holy people united and ordered [my emphasis] under the Bishop.”  Bishops would do better to serve than order people.[7]

 

“A Priest . . .  by the way he pronounces the divine words [sic] he must convey to the faithful the living presence of Christ.”[8]  This is a sad and sorry joke.  The words of the illiterate 2011 Missal are hardly divine.  Neither the Missal nor the Papacy makes them so.

 

“The faithful . . . are consequently to avoid any appearance of singularity or division,”[9] though, evidently, that is perfectly alright for the clergy, especially the hierarchy and Papacy.  That is not simply a War on Women, but is a war on all of the Faithful.

 

“The faithful, moreover, should not refuse to serve the People of God in gladness whenever they are asked to perform some particular service or function in the celebration.”  What about the clergy?

 

There are “certain questions regarding the collaboration of the non-ordained faithful [for example nuns, Sisters and other holy women] in the sacred [my emphasis] ministry of Priests . . . ”  In other words, the ministry of the non-ordained is not sacred.

 

“It is a praiseworthy practice for the chalice to be covered with a veil, which may be either of the color of the day or white.”[10]  This is a pre-Vatican II custom that I no longer find observed.

 

“ . . . procession . . . a reader, who may carry a Book of the Gospels (though not a Lectionary), slightly [my emphasis] elevated . . .   In practice, the Faithful fully extend their arms, rather than slightly elevate, the Book of the Gospels.

 

 

II. Prayer before reading Sacred Scripture (Collect)

 

A. Missal:      O God, who have prepared for those who love you good things which no eye can see, fill our hearts, we pray, with the warmth of your love, so that, loving you in all things and above all things, we may attain your promises, which surpass every human desire.  Through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God for ever [sic] and ever.

 

B. Italian Latin:[11]  Deus, qui diligéntibus te bona invisibília praeparásti, infúnde córdibus nostris tui amóris afféctum, ut, te in ómnibus et super ómnia diligéntes, promissiónes tuas, quae omne desidérium súperant, consequámur.  Per Dóminum.

 

To make the Revised Prayers easier to find, Personal Notes repeats them on the last page.  Only the heartiest souls will want to plow through the preceding Appendices (see the heading on page 7/28), week after week, after identifying more and more repetitious nonsense.

 

C. Revised:   Blessed God, you have prepared good things for those who love you.  Fill our hearts with the warmth of your love so that we may receive your promises, promises that surpass all of our wants.  We ask this through our Lord, Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, forever.

D. Comment: The Appendix explains the single-spaced material in bold print.

 

III. Prayer after Communion

 

A. Missal:      Made partakers of Christ through these Sacraments, we humbly implore your mercy, Lord, that, conformed to his image on earth, we may merit also to be his coheirs in heaven.  Who lives and reigns for ever [sic] and ever.

 

B. Italian Latin:[12]  Per haec sacraménta, Dómine, Christi partícipes effécti, cleméntiam tuam humíliter implorámus, ut, eius imáginis confórmes in terris, et eius consórtes in caelis fíeri mereámur.  Qui vivit et regnat in saecula saeculórum.

 

C. Revised:   These Sacraments have joined us to the life of Jesus Christ.  Have mercy on us, dear God, and make us more like Jesus in this life, so that we may be with your Son in the next life.  Let us be co-heirs of eternal life with Jesus, who lives and reigns with you with the Holy Spirit, forever.

V. ICEL

 

Prayer before reading Sacred Scripture (Collect)[13]

 

ICEL:[14]          For those who love you, Lord, you have prepared blessings which no eye has seen; fill our hearts with longing for you, that, loving you in all things and above all things, we may obtain your promises, which exceed every heart’s desire.

 

We ask this through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, God for ever [sic] and ever.

 

Prayer after Communion[15]

ICEL:[16]          God of mercy, through this holy eucharist [sic] you make us one body in Christ.  Fashion us in his likeness here on earth, that we may be ready to share his company in heaven, where he lives and reigns for ever and ever.

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

These Appendices enable the busy reader to skip repetitious and boring details.  Some of the details become dense and distracting, except for anyone with the time and devotion to work through more than twenty pages of material in order to understand two relatively minor prayers, the Collect and Prayer after Communion.  The reason to keep repeating the material, Sunday after Sunday, is for first-time readers, especially first-time readers associated with the Papacy. 

 

Someone seems to be paying attention.  Googling for Jirran May 5, 2012 found about 84,600 results; Raymond Jirran found about 49,100 results; Raymond J. Jirran found about 72,600 results from all around the globe.  Googling for Jirran June 30, 2015 found about 11,900 results; Raymond Jirran found about 2,910; Raymond J. Jirran found about 7,830 results from all around the globe.  It seems strange that both in 2012 and 2015 Raymond Jirran had fewer results than the more restrictive Raymond J. Jirran.  Anticipating pushback from this volume is scary, though, so far, not happening.

 

A further note to readers:  Personal Notes are uploaded to the internet at http://www.western-civilization.com/CBQ/Personal%20Notes/Personal%20Notes.htm and otherwise distributed as far as three months in advance.  When the time comes for actual use, two more otherwise unannounced revisions take place.  The first revision occurs a week before Personal Notes are presented to http://www.jamesriverjournal.net/  A second revision takes place after the particular Mass in question.  These latter two revisions are uploaded to http://www.western-civilization.com/CBQ/Personal%20Notes/Personal%20Notes.htm as they occur.

 

Archbishop Gregory M. Aymond tried to follow Papal directives to approve a translation that does not follow other directives the Papacy sets out in Liturgiam authenticam and ratio translationis.  As mentioned below, on page 4 of the Missal, Aymond grants his Concordat cum originali (agrees with the original).  Privileging standard American English over Papal Italian Latin focuses on the care of souls, rather than preservation of the institutional Church.  That is why, when I upload these ruminations to my web site at http://www.western-civilization.com/CBQ/Personal%20Notes/Personal%20Notes.htm, I always send a copy to the Archbishop.  So far, he remains unresponsive to me.  The institutional Church passes down the Gospels from generation to generation.

 

With the new Missal, the Roman Catholic Church is showing for what and how to pray.  According to standard American English, the prayers are so difficult to understand that I refer to the “illiterate 2011 Missal.”  The revised prayers are a paraphrase of the Bible-babble in the Missal into standard American English as heard in such venues as EWTN (Eternal Word Television Network), the Weather Channel, and the evening news.

 

The pertinent Missal passages for this Sunday are at n.a., The Roman Missal:  Renewed by Decree of the Most Holy Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, Promulgated by Authority of Pope Paul VI and Revised at the Direction of Pope John Paul II:  English Translation According to the Third Typical Edition:  For Use in the Dioceses of the United States of America:  Approved by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and Confirmed by the Apostolic See (Washington, DC [sic]: United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2011) 480.

 

James Dallen, a retired diocesan priest[17] and emeritus professor of religious studies at Gonzaga University in Spokane, Washington, has written an article that sheds light on the 2011 Missal.  Dallen observes that the higher clergy is using an institutional Church model that prioritizes preserving the Church institution, rather than the Gospel, for which the Church exists.  He asks the question, “What Kind of Ecclesiology?”[18]  His answer is that higher clergy, with an untenable and dysfunctional model of the Church as an institution, imposed the 2011 Missal on the United States and elsewhere. 

 

Long-time readers may have observed that Personal Notes rarely uses exclamation marks.  The reason is an academic preference for scholarship, rather than emotion.  When a scholar like Dallen gets emotional, however, Personal Notes pays attention.  In “What Kind of Ecclesiology?”  Dallen avoids exclamation points, until he reaches page 27/36.  With Dallen, Personal Notes is upset with for many versus for all; with priests receiving communion for and in place of the people; with the Vatican Holy See not following its own Liturgiam authenticam [LA] rules of “translation;” and with substituting uniformity for Christian unity.  The exclamation points of Dalen appear in red below.

 

Though `many’ and `all’ contrast in meaning in English, linguists and exegetes say that is the not case in Aramaic or Hebrew.  Roman [Vatican Apostolic Holy See] authorities say otherwise and make explaining that `for many’ really means `for all’ the task of catechesis.  Surely it would have been better if that had been reversed!  It will be more difficult to convince people that what they hear means something entirely different.  Liturgy and life are once more divorced.

 

Many promotes the institutional Church at the expense of the Gospel, for all.  The Papacy is insistent, on April 14 ordering German Catholics to stop postponing the change from for all to many.[19]

 

The next exclamation point happens on page 30/36.

 

A few points indicate its [General Instruction of the Roman Missal [GIRM]] perspective.  GIRM says little about the Eucharist in relation to ecclesial communion.  It says little about the significance of sacramental communion.  Its incomplete theology of Eucharistic sacrifice centers almost solely on the priest.  This Counter-Reformation clerical emphasis is central in GIRM and the new English translation reinforces it.  This affects the theology of Eucharistic and ecclesial communion and the role of the assembly, all of which are crucial to postconciliar reforms.  It reminds us that we are not that far removed from the time when the priest “said” Mass alone and he received communion for and in place of the people!

 

Emphasis on institutional priorities comes at the expense of the rest of the Faithful.

 

The next exclamation point comes at page 32/36.

 

. . . A clerical perspective often overshadows the pastoral and the role of central authority is overemphasized.  The consequence is to downplay the role of the assembled community and the local Church.  The official English translation accentuates these attitudes beyond what is in the Latin—curiously, the requirement of literal translation (“formal correspondence”) is not always observed!

 

Institutional emphasis on Latin, which the Faithful do not understand, deemphasizes standard American English, which the Faithful do understand.

 

The final exclamation point comes at page 34/36.

 

Two traditional adages support making changes of this [minimal, as in the revised prayers here?] type.  Even when the institutional [Church] model was dominant, an adage for interpreting canon law said de minimis non curat lex:  law is not concerned with trivial matters.  In practice, of course, the passion for uniformity regarded little as trivial.  Someone once tried to calculate the stupendous number of mortal sins that a priest could commit praying the breviary!  Despite that unfortunate precedent, generally mortal sin presumes grievous matter and violating the bonds of communion in liturgy presumes a substantial change of the expected texts.

 

The juridical Church downplays the loving Church of the Gospels.  Personal Notes brings similar concerns and emotions to the illiterate 2011 Missal.

 

The Roman Catholic Church hierarchy is confusing care of souls with care of the institution.  The institutional Church requires protection in order to pass down the Gospel from one generation to the next.  Since the hierarchy functions so close to the institutional Church, its confusion is understandable, if not damnable. 

 

The confusion in the hierarchy is evident in at least two places:  first in the highly publicized sexual abuse coverup; second in the less publicized 2011 Roman Missal.  First, is the sexual cover up.  Lacking a true care for souls, means that the sexual abuse coverup, including extricating Cardinal Bernard F. Law and Cardinal William J. Levada from the United States to Rome,[20] is an irresponsible derelict of duty, power play. 

 

Rome promoted Law to a position helping choose bishops throughout the world.  Rome promoted Levada to the position from which the Cardinal Conclave chose Pope Benedict XVI.  Rome, therefore, reinforced and promoted a culture of confusion.

 

Such imperial Roman behavior only makes things worse.  Lest there be any misunderstanding of the criminal seriousness of the sexual abuse coverup, Bishop Robert W. Finn of Kansas City-Saint Joseph, Missouri has not been able to escape.  He is currently going to trial for not reporting sexual abuse.[21] 

 

The second hierarchic confusion is in the 2011 Missal.  Care of souls is the first responsibility of the hierarchy.[22]  Lack of due diligence and leadership for the care of souls results in authority producing an anti-intellectual, anti-Vatican II, dysfunctional, illiterate 2011 Missal.  As Martin Luther (1483-1546) reminded the faithful, “ . . . the Jews are no longer Israel, for all things are to be new, and Israel too must become new.”  In other words, the Faithful need to be open to the vagaries of the New Covenant.[23] 

 

As the incoming pastor of Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in Newport News, Virginia, the Reverend John David Ramsey, writes, “Thus the church became increasingly open to the cultures which surrounded it, and often saw the hand of God at work through people outside the church, for the benefit of the church.”[24]  Lack of standard American English prevents the Faithful from clear, critical thinking about God.  The Apostolic See is exercising an unadulterated power play.  Follow along and witness how it plays games with reality.

 

Imperial Rome has rules of translation from the Latin into the vernacular languages.  In 2001, Pope John Paul II issued Liturgiam authenticam.  In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI issued ratio translationis.  The Latin promotes a focus on the institutional Church.

 

In apparent loyalty to the institutional Church, in agreement that the 2011 Missal follows the rules of translation, Archbishop Gregory M. Aymond grants his Concordat cum originali (agrees with the original), on page 4.  The Missal does not have an Imprimatur (let it be printed) or Nihil obstat (contains nothing contrary to faith and morals), the standard Roman Catholic procedures for permission to publish.

 

Closer examination of the Missal reveals how the Papacy perverts reality to protect itself, much like Shakespeare, in “The Taming of the Shrew,” has Petruchio publically breaking the will of Katherina to agree with whatever nonsense Petruchio proclaims.  In real life, the Papacy has publically broken the will of Archbishop Aymond to agree with whatever nonsense the Papacy proclaims. 

 

From “The Taming of the Shrew:”[25]

That “list” comports with whatever clarity the Congregation for Divine Faith (CDF) had about how the Leadership Conference of Women Religious (LCWR) Sisters were to change.  Petruchio was no more vague with Katherina than the Papacy with the LCWR. 

Katharina’s spirit is broken.  Petruchio’s power play has won.  As the audiences watching poor Katherina try to cope with Petruchio’s nonsense, their hearts go out to her.  Likewise, hearts go out to Archbishop Aymond.

 

The Missal contains compound, complex, convoluted sentences, often extending over forty words, resulting in non-standard American English.  The Teaching Magisterium imposes such nonsense, read from the altar each Sunday, with the excuse that is a better translation of the Latin, thereby focusing on the institutional Church.  English sentence structure forced into Latin sentence structure is a frustrating, unmitigated, tragic farce. 

 

Poor Archbishop Aymond knows all of these things, but must grant his Concordat cum originali in the 2011 Missal in order to remain subservient to the imperial power in Rome.  As the audience at the play hopes that Katherina can live with the conscience of a broken spirit, the Faithful can only hope that Archbishop Aymond can live with the conscience of his broken spirit.  Time will tell what the Papacy will do next.

 

The Papacy admits that the Faithful deserve readability, integrity, scholarship, “`language which is easily understandable’ to the faithful.”[26]  “. . . Liturgiam authenticam calls for the development and consistency of a distinctive translation style with these principal characteristics . . . (2) easy intelligibility . . . ”[27] that easy intelligibility is the reason for Personal Notes.  That is why Personal Notes pays attention to the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability.  The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability indicates the number of formal school years it takes to understand the material.  That nothing coming from the Apostolic See recognizes a need to check Grade Level Readability brings to mind “The Taming of the Shrew.”

 

The fifty word 23.9 post graduate Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability sentence that follows, from ratio translationis, exemplifies that it is the moon, or the sun, or whatever else it may be that the Apostolic See declares.

 

Even if it has [sic] perhaps [sic] become less frequently used in contemporary English than in the past, subordination [the technical term is hypotaxis[28]] remains comprehensible to the speaker and hearer of English, and therefore should be used to the extent that is necessary in order to translate accurately the prayers of the Roman Rite.[29]

 

Personal Notes strongly disagrees with the above abusive run-on sentence grammar but agrees with and offers paraphrasing, which ratio translationis legitimates in another place.[30]  Personal Notes, then, paraphrases, rather than translates, the illiterate 2011 Missal into standard American English.

 

Boring detail, at least here, is essential for making the case that the Apostolic See is vacillating and arbitrary, expecting others to follow directives, it, itself, ignores.  Not to burden the ordinary reader, with the compound, complex, confusing sentences from the Apostolic See, Personal Notes relegates these sentences to the Appendices for the more curious readers. 

 

Commentator Todd Flowerday uncovers some of the secrecy involved, hiding the Papal standards of translation.  Flowerday explains, “PrayTell was tipped to the leak of this document, a secret/private one, which is here.  This [ratio translationis] document was produced in the middle of the last decade, and holds a 2007 copyright.”[31]  The Papacy is secretive and, because secretive, also arbitrary.

 

Regular readers will note that capitalization in English does not follow capitalization in Latin.  Liturgiam authenticam offers some special rules.  When LORD means the untranslatable name for God, translators are to capitalize all letters.[32]  So far, there has been no occasion for that in any of the prayers paraphrased here, from the 2011 Missal.  Allowing for exceptions from what is capitalized in Latin is new (as of July 1, 2012) to Personal Notes.  Ratio translationis lists Terms for Capitalization,[33] a list unavailable until April 1, 2012, mainly because of my unwillingness to start research until the text for the 2011 Missal became fully available, just in time for Advent 2011.  On April 1, I was developing material for July 1.

 

In other cases, translators are to follow, with some exceptions, Latin capitalization.[34]  Flowerday comments,[35]

 

Capitalization is an interesting separate issue raised, especially in light of LA 32 [Liturgiam authenticam, paragraph 32].  First, liturgical texts are primarily an aural/oral tradition.  I don’t know how caps are communicated in speech.  A slight pause, perhaps?

It might be seen that a plunge into capitalization is itself a political fad.  If a vernacular language is moving away from it, what’s the sense in introducing it?  Do the clergy need reinforcement on the doctrine of upper case?

And finally, the various versions of the English MR3 [the 2011 Missal] have shown an uneven application of capital letters.  ICEL, Vox Clara [the committee the Apostolic See used to hijack the translation], or Msgr Moroney [James P. Moroney, Executive Secretary to the Vox Clara Committee][36] don’t seem to have read up on their 2007 ratio translationis.  It all seems rather arbitrary–which strikes me as counter to this church document, not to mention the whole thrust of post-conciliar liturgy.

 

Those who have followed Personal Notes over the past ten years, know “sloppy scholarship” appears too often.  Here is another case of “don’t care” sloppy scholarship, this time from ratio translationis. 

 

“ . . The following translation of the Collect for the Mass of the Eleventh Sunday of the year [sic] . . . ’  The reference is to the Eleventh Sunday in Ordinary Time, rather than of the year.  The text is from Prayer over the Offerings, rather than the Collect.[37]

 

The Papacy mocks the venerable Chicago Manual of Style.[38]  The problem is that the 2007 Ratio is citing a 1982 Chicago Manual.  1982 is the Twelfth Edition.  By 2007, the Chicago Manual was in the 2003 Fifteenth Edition.[39]  Like Petruchio, the Papacy is making it up as it goes along.

 

By its use of the word noble twice and nobility once, the Papacy continues to regard itself as part of Medieval nobility, rather than modern democracy.[40]

 

“However, the use of `sense lines' or colometry (`the measuring of the length of phrases’) has now been introduced into liturgical books . . . ”[41] except the Italian Latin.  Personal Notes, therefore, is not able to compare English with Latin colometry.

 

The illiterate 2011 Missal is a model for lack of academic integrity.  Personal Notes only examines Collects, Prayers after Communion, and an occasional Blessing over the People.  Personal Notes examines the Latin in the context of the translations. 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

Collect is the technical term for Prayer before reading Sacred Scripture.

 

On the first sentence of the Collect, my version of Microsoft Word 2010 Spelling & Grammar checker remarks:

 

"That" or "Which"

Do not use a comma before the pronoun "that".  If these words are not essential to the meaning of your sentence, use "which" and separate the words with a comma.

*    Instead of: Did you learn the dance, that is from Guatemala?

*    Consider: Did you learn the dance, which is from Guatemala?

*    Or consider: Did you learn the dance that is from Guatemala?

*    Instead of: I read the book, that is on the counter last year.

*    Consider: I read the book that is on the counter last year.

*    Or consider: I read the book, which is on the counter, last year.

 

In other words, “good things which no eye can see would be better rendered, “good things that no eye can see” or “good things, which no eye can see.”

 

God, who have prepared is not standard American English.  God, who has prepared  is standard American English.  Lack of subject-verb agreement sounds like Black or African American Language (BL or AAL), defined as “a style of speaking English words with Black flava—with Africanized semantic, grammatical, pronunciation, and rhetorical patterns.”[42]  I have a reservation about this definition, because my students, both Black and White, pointed out that Blacks learned their English mainly from lower-class Whites.  I have heard Whites speaking Black English, not with the sophistication Smitherman brings to the subject, but at least in diction and pronunciation.

 

Misuse of interjections, such as we pray, contributes to the conglomeration of meaninglessness and is very confusing to listeners.  The Little, Brown Handbook gives some examples, hey, oh, darn, wow.  An interjection is “A word standing by itself or inserted in a construction to exclaim or command attention.”  A forceful interjection is set off with an exclamation point, a mild interjection with a comma.  The Missal only uses mild interjections and that is a cause of discombobulating.[43] 

 

Dallen explains,[44]

 

The [Missal] language is elitist . . .  Self-deprecating and deferential language entered the liturgy in the fourth through sixth centuries.  To a great extent this copied the language of the imperial court, where petitioners and even officials groveled at the emperor’s feet and were expected to kiss his foot.  Much of this was translated in a more straightforward manner in the old ICEL translation.  The new one restores it—“be pleased to,” “listen graciously to,” and “we pray, O Lord, that you bid”—to avoid seeming to tell God what to do.  The Lord’s Prayer should presumably be rewritten to avoid such direct language as “give us this day,” “forgive,” “lead us not,” and “deliver us.”

 

Dallen points out that none of the heads of the Congregation of Divine Worship were fluent in English.[45]  I am not sure what Dallen means by fluent.  When I spoke with Cardinal Paul Augustin Mayer, O.S.B. in 2000, we seemed to have no trouble communicating in English.  Admittedly, the first language for Mayer was German. 

 

Might versus may in the Missal:  might connotes ability, wish, or desire;[46] may connotes permission.  According to the Dictionary, may is used in auxiliary function to express a wish or desire especially in prayer, imprecation, or benediction <may he reign in health> <may they all be damned> <may the best man win>.  I think might sounds better, because the faithful are expressing a desire, rather than asking for permission.  The Little, Brown Handbook explains, “the helping verbs of standard American English may be problematic if you are used to speaking another language or dialect.”[47]

 

The Latin does not capitalize sacraménta, but the Missal does capitalize Sacraments.[48]  Since the Faithful will not hear the difference between an upper and lower case word, there is no reason to stray from the Latin, except, perhaps, to show the arrogance of the translator in the face of anyone objecting to the illiterate 2011 Missal.  The revision takes into account the hearing of the faithful.

 

Dallen comments,[49]

 

Unfortunately, catechesis is also needed to explain that what we hear at worship is not what we really mean.  Unfamiliar words can be misleading.  [Familiar words used in an unfamiliar way can also be misleading and make the Faithful distrustful.]  Grammar and style intended more for the eye and ear can be misheard or misunderstood or ignored. . . .  Even more dangerously, language communicates attitudes and outlooks at a level deeper than the surface meaning of words. . . .The new translation (and the hype surrounding it) presents views on Church, tradition, unity, Eucharist, priesthood, laity, liturgical assembly, symbol, and liturgical participation.  Sometimes these are unclear or conflicting or at odds with Vatican Council II perspectives.

 

The Little, Brown Handbook has some more advice, of which the illiterate 2011 Roman Missal seems entirely oblivious.[50]

 

 . . . writing for readers is not the same as speaking to listeners.  Whereas a reader can go back and reread a written message, a listener cannot stop a speech to rehear a section.  Several studies have reported that immediately after hearing a short talk, most listeners cannot recall half of what was said.

Effective speakers adapt to their audience’s listening ability by reinforcing their ideas through repetition and restatement.  They use simple words, short sentences, personal pronouns, contractions, and colloquial expressions.  In formal writing, these strategies might seem redundant and too informal; but in speaking, they improve listeners’ comprehension.

 

Language is the tool humans use to think.  All languages have some thoughts that cannot be expressed in other languages.  Language is the window of the mind to reality.  Because language matters, the illiterate 2011 Missal matters. 

 

The Missal translates the Latin Missale into English.  I name the Missale Italian Latin, because of the accent marks, which do not appear elsewhere.  See pagina 461 at http://www.clerus.org/bibliaclerusonline/en/  The Holy See, Congregation for the Clergy runs this website.  (accessed March 18, 2012).

 

The first sentence of the Collect contains forty-five words, in a 12.8 Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability.  It is a fused sentence.[51]

 

My version of Microsoft Word 2010 Spelling & Grammar checker provides the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability.[52]  Dallen explains, “Applying readability criteria indicates that the number of years of formal education required for understanding Eucharistic Prayers on first reading has increased from 10.75 to 17.21,”[53] from sophomore high school to graduate school college.

 

The first sentence of this Prayer after Communion contains forty-five words, in a 12.8 Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability.  It is a fused sentence.  The revised Prayer after Communion has a 5.0 Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability.

 

The second sentence of the Collect has twenty-six words with a 9.5 Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability.  That is reading at the sophomore high school level.  The Little, Brown Handbook has a section, “Writing Concisely” that is helpful for the wordiness here.[54]

 

You may find yourself writing wordily when you are unsure of your subject or when your thoughts are tangled.  It’s fine, even necessary, to stumble and grope while drafting.  But you should straighten out your ideas and eliminate wordiness during revision and editing.

 . . . wordiness is not a problem of incorrect grammar.  A sentence may be perfectly grammatical but still contain unneeded words that interfere with your idea.

 

That is why the revised Collect has three, rather than two, sentences.  The revised Collect has a 7.7 Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readability.

 

Non-American English, such as Scottish or British, can appear illiterate to Americans in the United States.[55]  That is why oral prayers in anything other than standard American English are irrelevant, in the United States.  An exception to this may be African American Language (AAL),[56] but no one is trying that scenario. 

 

Because American English is not the first language for many Catholics in the United States, pastoral care requires standard American English.  Otherwise, the Faithful are subject to two contrary conclusions about the readings.  The first conclusion for the Faithful is that the Church does not respect what the marginalized, particularly immigrants, are doing to learn standard American English.  In addition to the laity, twenty-two percent of the active diocesan priests in the United States are from outside the country.[57]  They need their local ordinaries (bishops) to insist they keep improving their use of standard American English.  The second conclusion is that the Church is actively sabotaging any attempt to learn standard American English, just as it is sabotaging Vatican II.

 

The respective ICEL Collect and Prayer after Communion have 8.8, and  9.0 Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Readabilities. 

 

The Latin omits the O in the Missal O God.  The argument that the English is to stay close to the Latin does not hold up.  The English has O God.  The Latin has only Deus, without the O.  O is a Latin word.[58]

 

In the Collect, Jesus Christ is in apposition to our Lord and standard American English would set it off with commas.  The Little, Brown Handbook has a "using appositives” subsection.[59]

 

An appositive is usually a noun that renames another noun nearby [in this case Jesus Christ], most often the noun just before the appositive.  (the word appositive derives from a Latin word that means “placed near to” or “applied to.”)  An appositive phrase includes modifiers as well . . . .  All appositives can replace the words they refer to:  [our Lord/Jesus Christ]  . . . Appositives are economical alternatives to adjective clauses containing a form of be . . . [our Lord [who is] Jesus Christ. . . ] you can usually connect the appositive to the main clause containing the word referred to . . . An appositive is not setoff with punctuation when it is essential to the meaning of the word it refers to [in the United States of America, which has no secular lords, our Lord is not essential to Jesus Christ] . . .  When an appositive is not essential to the meaning of the word it refers to, it is set off with punctuation, usually a comma or commas [as is the case here, our Lord, Jesus Christ,] . . .

 

 

Through . . . is a sentence fragment the Missal uses throughout the book.  See The Little, Brown Handbook explains,[60]

 

A prepositional phrase is a modifier consisting of a proposition (such as in, on, to, or with [including through]) together with its object and any modifiers (see pp. 242-43).  A prepositional phrase cannot stand alone as a complete sentence . . .

 

At the end of the Collect, the unity is confusing.  A dictionary definition for the word the:  “1 c:-- used as a function word to indicate that a following noun or noun equivalent refers to someone or something that is unique or is thought of as unique or exists as only one at a time <the Lord><the Messiah> . . . .”[1]  Unity is a noun meaning “1a:  the quality of stage of being or consisting of one.”[1]  Does the unity mean that the Holy Spirit belongs to a union, like a labor union?  Does unity in the Collect mean that the Holy Spirit, unlike Jesus, has only one nature, Divine?  Does unity mean the trinitarian unity?  In the same vein, does unity mean that it is the Holy Spirit, which is the relationship between the Father and Son, thereby causing a triune unity?  The last is how the paraphrase would resolve the matter, substituting Divine Trinitarian nature for unity.  Because the Faithful have not challenged the unity since Vatican II, the now traditional silly phraseology remains.

 

Whether to include or exclude the 1998 ICEL translation is difficult.  The reason to include ICEL is:  this is the best the American bishops could do, before the Vatican rejected the translation.  The ICEL translation also deals with some of the vocabulary and grammatical problems with which the revisions deal.  The reason to exclude ICEL is:  the ICEL translation is not significantly better than the Missal.

 

Unigénitus is an adjective,[61] not included in Cassell’s, but is in the Nicene Creed, Credo, or “I believe” used on Sundays..[62]  Son is not in the Latin.  Only Begotten Son is not faithful to the Latin.  The argument that the English is to stay close to the Latin does not hold up.  The focus in English is on the begetting, rather than on the begotten, that is, the baby.

 

Rationale

Clarity is not a prerequisite for prayer.  The search for clarity can be a means to prayer.  As part of catechesis, these Personal Notes set up what the Church needs to explain to enable the Faithful to pray with faith seeking understanding, as Saint Anslem of Canterbury (1033-1109) puts it.[63] 

 

Dallen refers to an “omitted rubric” that makes one wonder how free presiders may be to use and adapt my paraphrasing of the current illiterate 2011 Missal.[64]

 

An omitted rubric also suggests a move toward greater uniformity.  In several places the 1973 translation advised the priest that he could say something to the assembly “in these or similar words.”  Whether paragraph 14 of Eucharistiae participationem (1973), which permitted this, has been repealed or not is unclear, but that option goes unmentioned in the new translation.  In some cases, the Latin text (and English translation) does provide a few variations and the impression is that only these are allowed.  Unity again required uniformity.  Apart from the omission of this rubric, the very fact that the many nations divided by a common language . . . are required to use the same translation makes clear the relationship between unity and uniformity.

 

In an attempt to use the prayers the anti-intellectual, anti-Vatican-II, dysfunctional, illiterate current Papacy, is now setting forth, these Personal Notes are taking on a new focus.  This new focus began November 27, 2011, the First Sunday in Advent.  From the First Sunday in Advent until just before the First Sunday of Lent, February 26, 2012, these Notes had a double focus, including both the Lectionary and the Missal.  After that, the focus will remain on the Missal, until the end of the liturgical year, December 1, 2012.


Blessed God, you have prepared good things for those who love you.  Fill our hearts with the warmth of your love so that we may receive your promises, promises that surpass all of our wants.  We ask this through our Lord, Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, forever.

 

These Sacraments have joined us to the life of Jesus Christ.  Have mercy on us, dear God, and make us more like Jesus in this life, so that we may be with your Son in the next life.  Let us be co-heirs of eternal life with Jesus, who lives and reigns with you with the Holy Spirit, forever.

 



[1] For regular readers of these Personal Notes, the documentation is very repetitive.  For that reason, there is an Appendix, between the end of Personal Notes and the repeated Prayers.  New readers should include that Appendix as they read.  Regular readers should look in the Appendix to refresh their memories. 

 

[2] http://ncronline.org/print/news/politics/when-budget-moral-failure-who-will-speak-poor?utm_source=Breaking_News_May_11_%28who%20speaks%20budget%29&utm_campaign=Who%20speaks%20for%20poor&utm_medium=emai  (accessed May 11, 2011). 

 

[3] Tom Gallagher, “When the budget is a moral failure, who will speak for the poor? at http://ncronline.org/print/news/politics/when-budget-moral-failure-who-will-speak-poor?utm_source=Breaking_News_May_11_%28who%20speaks%20budget%29&utm_campaign=Who%20speaks%20for%20poor&utm_medium=email (accessed May 11, 20152).

 

[4] Dan Morris-Young, “Sartain is the right man for the LCWR job, former co-workers say,” at http://ncronline.org/print/news/women-religious/sartain-right-man-lcwr-job-former-co-workers-say (accessed May 8, 20152).

 

[5] Comment page 4/5 by LFA, May 8, after Michael Kelly, “Ireland assembly of religious and laypeople calls for open church, re-evaluation,” at http://ncronline.org/print/news/global/ireland-assembly-religious-and-laypeople-calls-open-church-re-evaluation (accessed May 8, 2012).

 

[6] Ordained Women in the Early Church:  A Documentary History.  Edited and Translated by Kevin Madigan and Carolyn Osiek.  (Baltimore, Maryland:  The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.  Pp. xvi, 220.  $48.00).  Reviewed by William Tabbernee, Phillips Theological Seminary in The Catholic Historical Review, January 2007, pages 127-128.

 

[7] n.a., The Roman Missal:  Renewed by Decree of the Most Holy Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, Promulgated by Authority of Pope Paul VI and Revised at the Direction of Pope John Paul II:  English Translation According to the Third Typical Edition:  For Use in the Dioceses of the United States of America:  Approved by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and Confirmed by the Apostolic See (Washington, DC, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2011) page 40 Section #91.  Subsequent references are to the numbered sections, which run to #399 on page 87.  These references will first provide the page number in my missal, followed by the section number, as follows:  40, #91.

 

[8] 40, #93.

 

[9] 41, #95, cf. fn. 83; also cf. fn. 95 on page 45.

 

[10] 45, #118.

 

[11] See pagina 470 at http://www.clerus.org/bibliaclerusonline/en/  The Holy See, Congregation for the Clergy runs this website.  (accessed May 6, 2012).

 

[12] See pagina 470 at http://www.clerus.org/bibliaclerusonline/en/  The Holy See, Congregation for the Clergy runs this website.  (accessed May 6, 2012).

 

[13] See, International Commission on English in the Liturgy:  A Joint Commission of Catholics Bishops’ Conferences (ICEL), The Sacramentary:  Volume One—Sundays and Feasts (Washington, D.C.:  International Commission on English in the Liturgy, 1998), page 904 (226/362) , downloaded from https://rs895dt.rapidshare.com/#!download|895l35|387089704|ICEL_Sacramentary__1998_.zip|6767|R~00A3D4012C6FE19956DB84F71E5405F6|0|0 at http://misguidedmissal.com/wp/?page_id=23 (accessed December 8, 2011).

 

[14] For the Collect see, International Commission on English in the Liturgy:  A Joint Commission of Catholics Bishops’ Conferences (ICEL), The Sacramentary:  Volume One—Sundays and Feasts (Washington, D.C.:  International Commission on English in the Liturgy, 1998), page 886 (208/362) , downloaded from https://rs895dt.rapidshare.com/#!download|895l35|387089704|ICEL_Sacramentary__1998_.zip|6767|R~00A3D4012C6FE19956DB84F71E5405F6|0|0 at http://misguidedmissal.com/wp/?page_id=23 (accessed December 8, 2011).

 

[15] See, International Commission on English in the Liturgy:  A Joint Commission of Catholics Bishops’ Conferences (ICEL), The Sacramentary:  Volume One—Sundays and Feasts (Washington, D.C.:  International Commission on English in the Liturgy, 1998), page 905 (228/362), downloaded from https://rs895dt.rapidshare.com/#!download|895l35|387089704|ICEL_Sacramentary__1998_.zip|6767|R~00A3D4012C6FE19956DB84F71E5405F6|0|0 at http://misguidedmissal.com/wp/?page_id=23 (accessed December 8, 2011).

 

[16] For Prayer after Communion see, International Commission on English in the Liturgy:  A Joint Commission of Catholics Bishops’ Conferences (ICEL), The Sacramentary:  Volume One—Sundays and Feasts (Washington, D.C.:  International Commission on English in the Liturgy, 1998), page 887 (210/362), downloaded from https://rs895dt.rapidshare.com/#!download|895l35|387089704|ICEL_Sacramentary__1998_.zip|6767|R~00A3D4012C6FE19956DB84F71E5405F6|0|0 at http://misguidedmissal.com/wp/?page_id=23 (accessed December 8, 2011).

 

 

[17] http://salinadiocese.org/priests/231-priests/980-dallen-rev-james  (accessed March 11, 2012). 

 

[18] http://misguidedmissal.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Translation-Ecclesiology-Jim-Dallen-3-6-2012.pdf  (accessed March 11, 2012).

 

[19] Jonathan Luxmoore, “Pope orders German Catholics to make the `for many’ change,” National Catholic Reporter at http://ncronline.org/print/news/global/pope-orders-german-catholics-make-many-change (accessed May 4, 2012).

 

[20] By Rome, I mean global Church governance emanating from Rome, in which the Vatican City State is found.  Sometimes Rome is used to mean the Holy See or the Apostolic See.  Holy See is  not quite right, because all dioceses are Holy.  Apostolic See is arrogant and is how Rome prefers to refer to itself. 

 

[21] Joshua J. McElwee, “Judge orders Kansas City bishop to stand trial in abuse case,” National Catholic Reporter at http://ncronline.org/news/accountability/judge-orders-kansas-city-bishop-stand-trial-abuse-case  (accessed April 5, 2012). 

 

[22] Already evident in the [1545-1563] Trent] Council’s teaching is that the celebration of Mass is of undoubted validity in any language but that the cura animarum, or care of souls, which is at stake in the participation of the faithful in the Liturgy, is the first responsibility of the Bishops, no matter what language may be used for the Liturgy.  n.a., Ratio Translationis for the English Language (Vatican City:  Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2007)  as found at http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis1.pdf for page 13 (accessed March 31, 2012).

 

[23] Martin Luther, “Preface to the Prophet Ezekiel,”  Lenker, 6, 307-308* (WADB 11,1:400 in Reformation Commentary on Scripture:  Old Testament XII: Ezekiel, Daniel, (ed.) Carl L. Beckwith (Downers Grove, Illinois:  IVP Academic, An Imprint of InterVarsity Press, 2012) 116. 

 

[24] John David Ramsey, A Precarious Faith:  The Tri-une Dynamic of the Christian Life (Ph.D. Dissertation, Duke University, 2002) 37.

 

 

[25] http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/views/plays/play_view.php?WorkID=tamingshrew&Act=4&Scene=5&Scope=scene&displaytype=print  (accessed March 30, 2012).

 

[26] “. . . .It is important to note that vernacular renderings of a Latin text must be made in a `kind of language which is easily understandable’ to the faithful . . . ”  n.a., Ratio Translationis for the English Language (Vatican City:  Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2007)  as found at http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis1.pdf for page 10 (accessed March 31, 2012) #9.

 

[27] n.a., Ratio Translationis for the English Language (Vatican City:  Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2007)  as found at

http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis3.pdf for page 78 (accessed March 31, 2012);  http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis4.pdf for pages 100-130 (accessed March 31, 2012) #114 .

 

[28] Stanley Fish, How to Write a Sentence and How to Read One (New York:  HarperCollins Publishers, 2011) 51.

 

[29] n.a., Ratio Translationis for the English Language (Vatican City:  Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2007)  as found at

http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis2.pdf for pages 40 (accessed March 31, 2012).

 

[30] . . . Translations may not be made from a translation of the editio typica . . .   Paraphrase, as a method of restating a perceived meaning in terms other than those found in the original Latin, is not to be equated with translation.  Paraphrase aims to convey meaning directly and quickly in a given language . . .   n.a., Ratio Translationis for the English Language (Vatican City:  Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2007)  as found at

http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis2.pdf for pages 34-36 (accessed March 31, 2012) 41., 42.

 

[31] When it may be deemed appropriate by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, a text will be prepared after consultation with Bishops, called a “ratio translationis”, to be set forth by the authority of the same Dicastery, in which the principles of translation found in this Instruction will be applied in closer detail to a given language.  This document may be composed of various elements as the situation may require, such as, for example, a list of vernacular words to be equated with their Latin counterparts, the setting forth of principles applicable specifically to a given language, and so forth.

http://catholicsensibility.wordpress.com/2011/07/24/  (accessed April 1, 2012) 9.

 

[32] in accordance with immemorial tradition, which indeed is already evident in the above-mentioned “Septuagint” version, the name of almighty God expressed by the Hebrew tetragrammaton (YHWAH) and rendered in Latin by the word Dominus [sic], is to be rendered into any given vernacular by a word equivalent in meaning.  http://catholicsensibility.wordpress.com/2011/08/24/liturgiam-authenticam-41/  (accessed March 31, 2012).

 

[33] n.a., Ratio Translationis for the English Language (Vatican City:  Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2007)  as found at http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis4.pdf for pages 117-122 (accessed March 31, 2012).

 

[34] The use of capitalization in the liturgical texts of the Latin editiones typicae as well as in the liturgical translation of the Sacred Scriptures, for honorific or otherwise theologically significant reasons, is to be retained in the vernacular language at least insofar as the structure of a given language permits. http://catholicsensibility.wordpress.com/2011/08/20/liturgiam-authenticam-32-33/ (accessed March 31, 2012) 33; n.a., Ratio Translationis for the English Language (Vatican City:  Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2007)  as found at http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis3.pdf for page 82, 83 (accessed March 31, 2012) #17, #19.

 

[35] http://catholicsensibility.wordpress.com/2011/08/20/liturgiam-authenticam-32-33/ (accessed March 31, 2012).

 

[36] http://www.blogger.com/profile/17013903890674545477  (accessed March 31, 2012).

 

[37] http://www.clerus.org/bibliaclerusonline/en/  (accessed April 1, 2012).  Go to pagina 461 #56 .

 

[38] In sum, no style sheet can be used to “restrict the full sense of the original text within narrower limits” than is intended by the Liturgy itself.  The Chicago Manual of Style (University of Chicago Press, 1982), p., 208, for example, instructs its readers that the names of rites other than the Eucharist “are not capitalized in run [sic] of the text,” including all the Sacraments, whereas clearly in English-language liturgical books it has been a long-standing and well-founded practice to capitalize the words such as “Confirmation” as the proper name of a particular sacrament.  n.a., Ratio Translationis for the English Language (Vatican City:  Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2007)  as found at

http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis2.pdf for pages 52 (accessed March 31, 2012) 79.  .

 

[39] http://www.worldcat.org/title/chicago-manual-of-style/oclc/51553085/editions?editionsView=true&referer=br  (accessed April 1, 2012).

 

[40] n.a., Ratio Translationis for the English Language (Vatican City:  Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2007)  as found at http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis3.pdf for page 78, (accessed March 31, 2012).

 

[41] n.a., Ratio Translationis for the English Language (Vatican City:  Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2007)  as found at http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis4.pdf for page 126 (accessed March 31, 2012) #6.

[42] Geneva Smitherman, Word from the Mother:  Language and African Americans (New York:  Routledge, 2006) 3.  Also see 6, 9, which is not my meaning or concern.

 

[43] H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Eleventh Edition:  The Little, Brown Handbook (New York:  Longman, 2010) 233, 431, 893.

 

[44] James Dallen, “What Kind of Ecclesiology?” http://misguidedmissal.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Translation-Ecclesiology-Jim-Dallen-3-6-2012.pdf  (accessed March 11, 2012), page 17/36.

 

[45] James Dallen, “What Kind of Ecclesiology?” http://misguidedmissal.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Translation-Ecclesiology-Jim-Dallen-3-6-2012.pdf  (accessed March 11, 2012), page 11-12/36.

 

[46] http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=might&x=15&y=10  (accessed January 29, 2011).

 

[47] H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Eleventh Edition:  The Little, Brown Handbook (New York:  Longman, 2010) 274.

 

[48] n.a., Ratio Translationis for the English Language (Vatican City:  Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, 2007)  as found at

http://www.bible-researcher.com/ratio.translationis4.pdf for page 117 (accessed March 31, 2012).

 

[49] James Dallen, “What Kind of Ecclesiology?” http://misguidedmissal.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Translation-Ecclesiology-Jim-Dallen-3-6-2012.pdf  (accessed March 11, 2012), page 2/36.

 

[50] H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Eleventh Edition:  The Little, Brown Handbook (New York:  Longman, 2010) 856.

 

[51] See Chapter 18, “Comma Splices, Fused Sentences,” H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Eleventh Edition:  The Little, Brown Handbook (New York:  Longman, 2010) 339-444. 

 

[52] For a description of readability levels, go to http://www.online-utility.org/english/readability_test_and_improve.jsp  (accessed March 11, 2012).

 

[53] James Dallen, “What Kind of Ecclesiology?” http://misguidedmissal.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Translation-Ecclesiology-Jim-Dallen-3-6-2012.pdf  (accessed March 11, 2012), page 17/36.  Dallen cites http://www.praytellblog.com/index.php/2011/02/18/readability-tests-on-the-eucharistic-prayers/ that I accessed March 11, 2012.

 

[54] 8. Effective Words, 39.  Writing Concisely,” H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Eleventh Edition:  The Little, Brown Handbook (New York:  Longman, 2010) 523-524.

 

[55] Bette Mae K. Jirran reads widely in fiction and cites the following as examples.  Emily Brightwell, Mrs. Jeffries Forges Ahead, (New York:  Berkley Prime Crime, 2011); Jude Deveraux, Jill Barnett, Geralyn Dawson, Pam Binder, and Patricia Cabot, A Season in the Highlands (New York:  Pocket Books, 2000); Christina Dodd, Stephanie Laurens, Julia Quinn, and Karen Ranney, Scottish Brides (New York:  Avon Books, 1999).

 

[56] Geneva Smitherman, Word from the Mother:  Language and African Americans (New York:  Routledge, 2006) 3.

 

[57] http://www.commonwealmagazine.org/it-doesn%E2%80%99t-sing  (February 26, 2012).

 

[58] Cassell’s Latin Dictionary: Latin-English and English-Latin, revised by J. R. V. Marchant, M.A. and Joseph F. Charles, B.A. (New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1952) 371.

 

[59] H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Eleventh Edition:  The Little, Brown Handbook (New York:  Longman, 2010) 254-255. 

 

[60] See Part 4, “Clear Sentences,” Chapter 17 c, “Sentence Fragments:  Verbal or prepositional phrase,” H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Eleventh Edition:  The Little, Brown Handbook (New York:  Longman, 2010) 335.  http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=the&x=0&y=0  (accessed December 4, 2011).  http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=unity&x=0&y=0  (assessed December 4, 2011).

 

[61] R. P. Leverett (ed.) Enlarged and Improved Edition.  A New and Copious Lexicon of the Latin Language:  complied chiefly from the Magnum Totius Latinitatis Lexicon of Facciolati and Forcellini, and the German Works of Scheller and Luenemann Edited by F. P. Leverett.  A New Edition, Embracing the Classical Distinctions of words, and the Etymological Index of Freund’s Lexicon (Philadelphia:  J. B. Lippincott Company, 1850) 978.

 

[62] D. P. Simpson, M.A., Cassell’s Latin Dictionary: Latin-English  English-Latin, (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc., (fifth edition) 1968) 624.

 

[63] http://www.google.com/search?q=faith+seeking+understanding&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a  (accessed November 28, 2011) and http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/anselm/ (accessed November 28, 2011).

 

[64] James Dallen, “What Kind of Ecclesiology?” http://misguidedmissal.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Translation-Ecclesiology-Jim-Dallen-3-6-2012.pdf  (accessed March 11, 2012), page 28-29/36.