What intrigues me in these Lectionary readings in Sacred Scripture, is the variation in the manuscripts for how the Canaanite woman cried out to Jesus to heal her daughter. Appropriately, the daughter was a traditional enemy, tormented by a demon. The question is in the verb tense. I wonder whether the better manuscripts correct the aorist tense for the imperfect, -ing, tense. There is no aorist tense in either Latin or English. The aorist is a completed action that continues into the present. As I understand it, the manuscripts struggle over, did the woman cry out once and expect to be heard or did she keep crying out to ensure that she was heard? While I am very uncertain of my grasp of the Greek, I am very certain that my effort to grasp the Greek helps bring that woman alive in my imagination. In the final analysis, the Canaanite woman is a stand in for all non-Jewish Christians.
Isaiah 56:6 prophecies positively about the foreigners who join themselves to the LORD. Psalm 67:6 prays, O God; may all the peoples praise you! The passage from Romans, begins with verse 13, I am speaking to you Gentiles. Finally, the woman wins her argument in Matthew 15:28, when Jesus says, “let it be done for you as you wish.”
Material above the double line draws from material below the double line. Those uninterested in scholarly and tangential details should stop reading here. If they do, however, they may miss some interesting scholarly details.
Isaiah 56:3, 6-7
Matthew J. Lynch, "
Isaiah 56:3 is in Third- or Trito-Isaiah, that part of Isaiah written after the Israelites return from Exile. Lynch argues that Trito-Isaiah employs the divine warrior traditions “to counter the increasing darkness of Israel’s exilic rebellion, failed dreams, and foreign domination, and to illuminate the surprising glories of Zion’s future—a future made secure only by the intervention and return of Zion’s warrior and king.” Lynch argues, “In the broader Trito-Isaian context, foreigners are offered asylum in Zion (56:3, 6-7).”
Margaret Barker, The Great High Priest: The
Barker argues that the enforcement of the Law of Deuteronomy drove foreigners and eunuchs out of the restored temple, even though Isaiah warned that those people would have a place in the temple. Such enforcement of the Law of Deuteronomy is like enforcing harmful racial customs in the United States.
William H. Irwin, C.S.B., review of Burkard M. Zapff, Jesaia 56—66
Zapff argues that the scribal activity adding and extending the original Isaiah goes through five stages. Skipping over the first two stages, Observe what is right, do what is just, represents the third “conversion redaction” stage. Isaiah 56:1 is the key to all of the stages. Irwin agrees, “The salvation promised in Isaiah 40-55 is delayed but will come.” Skipping over the fourth stage, Isaiah 56:2-8, I will bring [foreigners] to my holy mountain, comes in the final, fifth stage, “the community of the servants of God redaction.” The Gentile Faithful are in this final community.
J. Clinton McCann, Jr., review of John T. Strong and Steven S. Tuell (eds.), Constituting the Community: Studies on the Policy of Ancient Israel in Honor of S. Dean McBride, Jr.
The authors argue that Isaiah 56:3-8, I will bring [the foreigners] to my holy mountain, “is an intentional and direct abrogation of Ezek 44:1-14,” No alien …may enter my sanctuary …”
Steven L. Bridge, review of Steve Moyise and Maarten J. J. Menken (eds.), Isaiah in the New Testament
The authors argue that Isaiah 56:7, my house shall be called a house of prayer, validates and explains the actions of Jesus in the temple.
Psalm 67:2-3, 5, 6
William P. Brown, review of Theodore
Mascarenhas, The Missionary
does not convince Brown that
Romans 11:13-15, 29-32
Mark Reasoner, review of Kari Kuula, The Law, the Covenant and God’s Plan, Volume
2, Paul’s Treatment of the Law and
Kuula argues that Romans 9:30—11:36 cancels “the salvific purpose of the law.” Kuula advances the study of Romans in three ways. (1) There is a discontinuity between Pauline theology and Jewish Scriptures and a corresponding need for a better definition of Christian identity. (2) Kuula distinguishes between unchanging core convictions and changing arguments used to explain them. (3) Kuula “offers a Protestant insistence on the necessity of good works for salvation in Paul.”
Rom 11:12, 15, 30, 32
Charles H. Cosgrove, "Did Paul Value Ethnicity?"
Paul did not value ethnicity. Cosgrove uses Romans 11:32 to argue that “all people are `consigned to disobedience,’ which makes them all morally equal (Rom 11:32), a point already made in Rom 3:9.” Cosgrove uses Romans 11:12, 15, and 30 to state, “Israel is an unwitting servant to the nations.”
Paul Lawrence, The IVP Atlas of Bible History
It was agreed [at the Council of Jerusalem in 49] that, since faith in Christ brought salvation, Gentile Christians were not required to keep the rituals of Mosaic Law. It was this principle, more than anything else, that clearly differentiated Christianity from its origins in Judaism. It was this that enabled Christianity to take root in Gentile communities.
Jeremy Corley, “The Pauline Authorship of 1 Corinthians 13”
Corley observes that this is one of the passages in which Paul makes no explicit reference to Jesus. Paul focuses on God the Father.
Wendell E. Langley, S.J., “The Parable of the Two Sons (Matthew 21:28-32) against its Semitic and Rabbinic Backdrop”
cf. Mathew 4:23
“a Canaanite woman … called out.”
The Greek for called out in the uncial manuscript, Z (whoever that may be) corrected from the aorist (a completed act) to the imperfect (kept going on) act. In other words, the Majority text has kept calling out, rather than called out [once].
The various translations are as follows:
Lectionary (1998) a Canaanite woman … called out
The Vulgate (circa 410) Et ecce mulier Chananaea … clamavit
Douay-Rheims (1582-1610) a woman of
King James (1611) a woman of
Catholic RSV (1969) a Canaanite woman … cried
New American (
New Jerusalem (1985) a Canaanite woman … started shouting
In order to get a better grasp of the manuscripts, I have ordered Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism.
Jack Dean Kingsbury, “Observations on the `Miracle Chapters’ of Matthew 8-9”
Kingsbury argues, “that Jesus Messiah both delivers the Sermon on the Mount in Chaps. 5—7 and undertakes in chaps. 8—9 his ministry of healing.”
Kenton L. Sparks, "Gospel as Conquest: Mosaic Typology in Matthew 28:16-20"
John Paul Heil, “Ezekiel 34 and the Narrative Strategy of the Shepherd and Sheep Metaphor in Matthew”
uses “I was sent only to the lost sheep
of the house of
Mark F. Whitters, "Jesus in the Footsteps of Jeremiah"
argues that the mission to the lost sheep
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 2 (April 2008) 262.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 69, No. 4 (October 2007) 804.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 68, No. 4 (October 2006) 791.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 69, No. 1 (January 2007) 190.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 68, No. 3 (April 2006) 518.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 68, No. 1 (April 2006) 151.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 68, No. 2 (April 2006) 288.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 66, No. 2 (April 2004) 268.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 58, No. 2 (April 1996) 231.
 At this point, I am taking the Vulgate from Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum: Graece et Latine: Textum Graecum post Eberhard et Erwin Nestle communiter ediderunt Barbara et Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger: Textus Latinus Novae Vulgatae Bibliorum Sacrorum Editioni debetur: Utriusque textus apparatum criticum recensuerent et editionem novis curis elaboraverunt Barbara et Kurt Aland una cum Instituto Studiorum Textus Novi Testamenti Monasterii Westphaliae (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft 1999) Editio XXVII. I intend to reissue the Appendix immediately.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 4 (April 1978) 565 ff.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 68, No. 4 (October 2006) 654, 655.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 55, No. 4 (April 1993) 698-705.
 the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 68, No. 2 (April 2006) 244, 246.