First Reading:                    Isaiah 50:4-7

Responsorial Psalm:          Psalm 22:8-9, 17-18, 19-20, 23-24 (2a)

Second Reading:               Philippians 2:6-11

Verse before the Gospel:   Philippians 2:8-9

Gospel:                             Matthew 26:14—27:66

 

Commentary

I have long observed that the New Testament never quotes the First Testament with the exact words.  This Sunday, the words in Matthew 27:9 substitute Jeremiah for Zachariah.  Then was fulfilled what had been said through Jeremiah the prophet was not what Jeremiah said.  Zachariah said it.  The discrepancy is documented at both “Themes” and “Manuscripts” below.  The professional historian in me is not pleased. 

The marginalia in the Greek, identified by the use of italics for other passages in addition to Jeremiah, disturb me.  I do not know what to make of it.  The value of the Jeremiah discrepancy is that it passes down from age to age.  This means that what Matthew wrote originally is coming through.  It also means that Church traditions are useful for understanding Sacred Scripture.  It does not mean that the Faithful are bound to accept Jeremiah, when Zachariah is meant, any more than the Faithful are bound accept brothers when brothers and sisters is meant at the first greeting of Epistles.

The prayer for this Sunday, then, is for the grace of discernment between what is Faith-bound and what is not Faith-bound.  This grace is especially important as the Faithful rise to the occasion this coming May 1, of beatifying Pope John Paul II, whom I regard as the worst Pope at least since the time of the Renaissance and the Protestant Revolt.  Additionally, the blatant “fast track,” seems a very pointed slap at the abused victims of the sexual cover-up.

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Annotated Bibliography

Material above the double line draws from material below the double line.  Those uninterested in scholarly and tangential details should stop reading here.  If they do, however, they may miss some interesting material.

 

Isaiah 50:4-7

 

Psalm 22:8-9, 17-18, 19-20, 23-24 (2a)

 

Philippians 2:6-11

 

Philippians 2:8-9

 

Matthew 26:14—27:66

Matt 26:53

Bettye Collier-Thomas, Daughters of Thunder: Black Women Preachers and Their Sermons, 1850-1979[1]

Sometime between 1874 and 1892, Harriet A. Baker (1829-1913) preached a sermon titled “Jesus Weeping over Jerusalem.”  Baker brings in Rahab, the Canaanite who helped the Israelites take Jericho, subtly to support the rights of religious women in the church.  Collier-Thomas writes that “in `Jesus Weeping over Jerusalem’ Baker uses the story of Christ’s passion to stress that earthly rejection does not, in the end, hurt  the one who is rejected, only those who blindly spurn the messenger of salvation.”

 

Matt 26:15

Carolyn Osiek, R.S.C.J., “`When You Pray, Go into Your tameion’ (Mathew 6:6: But Why?”[2]

Osiek uses thirty pieces of silver, among other references to money to argue that Matthew had a wide knowledge, not limited to a Palestinian farmhouse in Antioch, where some suppose Matthew wrote about praying “in your room.”

 

Matt 26:17—27:24

Leroy Andrew Huizenga, “Obedience unto Death: The Matthean Gethsemane and Arrest Sequence and the Aqedah”[3]

Aqedah is pronounced key dah and means binding.  Aqedah is not in the dictionary I use.[4]  I am now unable to verify the pronunciation.  Huizenga argues for parallels between the original temptations of Jesus by Satan and the taunting Jesus receives in similar vein as he hangs on the cross.  Huizenga also argues for considerable parallels with the Book of Genesis.

 

Matt 26:18

Walter T. Wilson, review of Matthias Konradt, Israel, Kirche und die Volker im Matthausevangelium[5]

Konradt argues from Jesus sending his disciples into Jerusalem to ask for a room as the turning point from focusing on Israel to focusing on every nation.  Wilson reports that “more could be said” to make that turning point more convincing.

 

Matt 26:26

Jerome H. Neyrey, S.J., “Lost in Translation: Did It Matter If Christians `Thanked’ God or `Gave God Glory’?”[6]

Neyrey uses the argument of John H. McKenna that at the Last Super, when Jesus said the blessing the meaning was “admiration and joy; gratitude remains subordinated to the fundamental feeling of admiration and is, therefore, secondary.”  At a practical level, I have grown more comfortable “praising God” than extending thanks on some special occasions.

 

Matt 26:28

Mark F. Whitters, “Taxo and His Seven Sons in the Cave (Assumption of Moses 9-10)”[7]

The Greek apparatus recognizes The Assumption of Moses among ancient texts, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, which did not make it into the First Testament.[8]  Taxo and his seven sons rather shed their blood than give up their Faith.  At Matthew 26:28 Jesus, speaking of his Eucharistic blood, says, this is my blood of the covenant.  Whitters argues that the New Testament here echoes the Testament of Moses.

 

Matt 26:31

Daniel W. Ulrich, review of Joel Willitts, Matthew’s Messianic Shepherd-King: In Search of `The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel’[9]

Ulrich reports that Willitts argues from I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be dispersed to David, the shepherd, to an earthly kingdom for Christianity.  Ulrich concludes, “This suggestion is a matter for further consideration.”

 


 

Matt 26:32

Pheme Perkins, “What is a Gnostic Gospel?”[10]

The Gnostics claimed to have a special knowledge.  Perkins argues the Gnostics, a widely diverse group whose origins antedate Jesus and extend to the Fifth Century, developed and extended Christian Sacred Scripture.[11]  Gnostic Gospels began appearing in the mid-Second Century.  Matthew 26:32 is one of several examples of the Gnostic approach.  The Lectionary has, but after I have been raised up, I shall go before you to Galilee.  In contrast, the Gnostic Valentinian has, I will go before you on the third day into Galilee.  Gnostic Gospels attach to a gap in the Canonical Gospels about what Jesus taught after his Resurrection.

 

Matt 26:41

Emil A. Wcela, “What is Catholic about a Catholic Translation of the Bible?”[12]

Wcela argues from an anecdote that computerized translations can be misleading.  Wcela relates the admittedly unverified story translating the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak from English into Japanese, back into English with the result, The whiskey is quite good but the roast beef is mediocre.  Wcela then excuses himself with the Italian aphorism, Even if the story isn’t true, there’s plenty of reason to believe it.  The point is that Wcela distrusts formal-equivalence translations.

 

Matt 26:52

Leroy Andrew Huizenga, “Obedience unto Death: The Matthean Gethsemane and Arrest Sequence and the Aqedah”[13]

Here is the Aqedah again.  Huizenga argues that the whole of the Gospel of Matthew parallels the life of Jesus and Isaac.  Huizenga argues that the backdrop of Isaac makes the point

that his [Jesus’s] death resulted from obedience to the divine plan, not a mere human conspiracy; gives his sacrifice as a rationale for his nonviolence; and functions as positive apologetic.  The subtle mechanism of allusion increasing its very force, the passage powerfully demonstrates more than that Jesus is not brigand nor magician nor coward.  Jesus is in fact cut from the same cloth as Isaac, who faced his sacrificial death with incomparable obedience and courage.

 

Matt 27:46

Catherine Brown Tkacz, "Esther, Jesus, and Psalm 22"[14]

Tkacz asserts, “Liturgically the psalm has been used only in the liturgy of Good Friday.”  The present Lectionary uses the psalm not only Good Friday, but also for Palm Sunday and Easter.[15]  That discrepancy makes me discount the use of this article for my liturgical purposes here.

 

Matt 27:62-66

Daniel A. Smith, “Seeing a Pneuma(tic Body):  The Apologetic Interests of Luke 24:36-43”[16]

Smith argues that Luke offers an insider’s view of the Resurrection; whereas Matthew, with the Pharisees gathering before Pilate, offers an outsiders view.  Smith argues that Luke is set in contrast to Matthew.

 

 

For more on sources see the Appendix file.  Personal Notes are on the web site at www.western-civilization.com/CBQ/Personal%20Notes

 

Themes

For recurring themes in Sacred Scripture, see the following.  The exclamation point (!) indicates where a principal reference list of passages related by a common theme or expression found.  Italics of the same verse indicates a special relevance; italics of a different verse or book, indicates a direct quote.  The abbreviation for following is f.  For more lengthy following, the abbreviation is ff.  With this material, I am trying to lay a foundation for developing Biblical themes the next time through the Cycles, when I intend to add in which Lectionary readings the relevant passages are found.

 

Sacred Scripture develops themes for the following readings at Matthew 26:14—27:66:

 

Verse 14       14-16: Mark 14:10 f.; Luke 22:3-6, John 11:57.

 

Verse 16      

Verse 17       17-20: Mark 14:12-17; Luke 22:7-14; Exodus 12:14-20.

Verse 18       Mathew 21:2 f.

Verse 19      

Verse 20      

Verse 21       21-25: Mark 14:18-21; Luke 22:21-23; John 13:21-26.

Verse 22      

Verse 23      

Verse 24       Matthew 18:7 parallel; Enoch 38:2.

Verse 25      

Verse 26       26-29: Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:15-20; 1 Corinthians 11:23-25; Mark 14:22! 1 Corinthians 10:16.

Verse 27      

Verse 28       Exodus 24:8; Zechariah 9:11; Jeremiah 31:31; Hebrews 7:22! Isaiah 53:12; Jeremiah 31:34.

Verse 29       Acts 10:41.

Verse 30       30: Mark 14:26; Luke 22:39; John 18:1; Psalms 113—118.

Verse 31       31-35: Mark 14:27-31; Luke 22:31-34, 11:6! Zechariah 13:7.

Verse 32       Matthew 9:36; John 16:32.

Verse 33       John 13:36-38.

Verse 34       Matthew 26:75.

Verse 35      

Verse 36       36-46: Mark 14:32-452; Luke 22:40-46; John 18:1.

Verse 37       Matthew 17:1! 4:21! Hebrews 5:7 f.

Verse 38       Psalm 42:6 12:43.5; Jonah 4:9; Sirach 37:2; John 12:27.

Verse 39       Matthew 20:22 f.; Isaiah 51:17, 22; John 18:11.

Verse 40       John 6:38! Matthew 25:5.

Verse 41       1 Peter 5:8! Matthew 4:7; Ephesians 6:18, 6:13; Hebrews 2:18; Matthew 4:15.

Verse 42      

Verse 43       Matthew 6:10; Acts 21:14; Luke 9:32.

Verse 44       2 Corinthians 12:8.

Verse 45       2 Samuel 24:14.

Verse 46       John 14:31.

Verse 47       47-56: Mark 14:43-50; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:3-11; Matthew 21:23!

Verse 48       2 Samuel 20:9; Matthew 27:29; 28:9.

Verse 49      

Verse 50       John 18:12.

Verse 51       John 18:26.

Verse 52       Genesis 9:6; Revelation 1:10.

Verse 53       Psalm 91:11 f.; Hebrews 12:22; John 18:36.

Verse 54       Daniel 2:28 f. 45.

Verse 55       Luke 19:47!

Verse 56       Matthew 26:31; John 16:32.

Verse 57       57-68: Mark 14:53-65; Luke 22:54 f., 63-71; John 18:13-24.Matthew 26:3!

Verse 58       Matthew 26:69.

Verse 59       Psalm 27:12.

Verse 60       John 8:17!

Verse 61       Matthew 27:40; John 2:19-21; Acts 6:14; Mark 13:2 (including the apparatus).

Verse 62      

Verse 63       Matthew 27:14 f.; Mark 5:7.

Verse 64       Matthew 16:16! Matthew 27:11 f.; Daniel 7:13; Psalm 110:1; Matthew 24:30! 22:44; Mark16:19; Acts 7:55 f.

Verse 65       Ezekiel 1:26; Enoch 69:27-29; Leviticus 10:6; Matthew 21:10; Acts 14:14; Matthew 9:3!

Verse 66       John 19:7; Leviticus 24:16;  Matthew 27:30; Isaiah 50:6; Micah 4:14.

Verse 67      

Verse 68      

Verse 69       69-75: Mark 14:66-72; Luke 22:56-72; John 18:25-27, 58; Acts 4:13.

Verse 70      

Verse 71      

Verse 72      

Verse 73      

Verse 74      

Verse 75       Matthew 26:34 f.; Isaiah 22:4.

Chapter 27

Verse 01       1 f.: Mark 15:1; Luke 23:1; John 18:28; Luke 22:66; Matthew 21:23!

Verse 02      

Verse 03       3-10: Acts 1:18 f.

Verse 04       Matthew 4:24; Deuteronomy 27:25.

Verse 05      

Verse 06       2 Samuel 17:23; Mark 7:11.

Verse 07       Deuteronomy 23:19.

Verse 08      

Verse 09       Matthew 26:15; Zechariah 11:13.

Verse 10       Jeremiah 18:2 f; Matthew 32:8 f.; Exodus 9:12.

Verse 11       11-14: Mark 15:2-5; Luke 23:2 f; John 18:29-38; 1 Timothy 6:13.

Verse 12       Matthew 26:64; Luke 23:10; Acts 24:2.

Verse 13       Isaiah 53:7; Luke 23:9.

Verse 14       Matthew 26:63; John 19:9 f.

Verse 15       15-23: Mark 15:6-14; Luke 23:17-23; John 18:39 f.

Verse 16      

Verse 17       Matthew 22:1:16.

Verse 18      

Verse 19       Acts 25:17; Luke 23:47; Acts 3:14!

Verse 20      

Verse 21      

Verse 22       Acts 3:13 f.; Matthew 13:27 f.; 27:17!

Verse 23      

Verse 24       24-26: Mark 15:15; Luke 23:24 f; John 19:16a; Deuteronomy 21:6-8; Psalm 26:6, 73:13; 4 Susanna 46; 2 Samuel 1:16; 14:9; Jeremiah 51:35.

Verse 25      

Verse 26      

Verse 27       27-31: Mark 15:16-20; John 19:2f.; Matthew 26:49.

Verse 28       Matthew 26:67; Isaiah 50:6.

Verse 29      

Verse 30      

Verse 31      

Verse 32       32-37: Mark 15:21-26; Luke 23:26-34; John 19:17-27; Acts 6:9!

Verse 33      

Verse 34       Psalm 69:22.

Verse 35       Psalm 22:19.

Verse 36      

Verse 37      

Verse 38       38-43: Mark 15:27-32a; Luke 23:35-38; Isaiah 53:12.

Verse 39       Psalm 22:8, 109:25; Lamentations 2:15.

Verse 40       Matthew 26:61! Matthew 4:3!

Verse 41      

Verse 42       Luke 4:23; Zephaniah 3:15.

Verse 43       Psalm 22:9; Isaiah 36:7, 20; Wisdom 2:13, 18-20; Matthew 16:16!

Verse 44       44: Mark 15:32b; Luke 23:39-43.

Verse 45       45-54: Mark 15:33-39; Luke 23:44-48; John 19:28-30; Amos 8:9; Jeremiah 15:9.

Verse 46       Psalm 22:2.

Verse 47      

Verse 48       Psalm 69:22.

Verse 49      

Verse 50      

Verse 51       Exodus 26:31 ff.; Hebrews 6:19! Hebrews 12:26.

Verse 52       Exodus 37:12f.; Isaiah 26:19; Daniel 12:2.

Verse 53       1 Corinthians 15:20! Matthew 4:5!

Verse 54       Matthew 16:16!

Verse 55       55 f.: Mark 15: 40 f.; Luke 23:49; John 19:24b-27; Mark 15:40!

Verse 56       Matthew 61:28, 1 parallel; Matthew 4:21!

Verse 57       57-61: Mark 15:42-47; Luke 23:50-55; John 19:38-42.

Verse 58       Deuteronomy 21:22 f.

Verse 59       1 Kings 13:29 f.

Verse 60       Mark 16:4.

Verse 61       Matthew 27:56!

Verse 62       Matthew 21:45.

Verse 63       John 7:12, 47; Luke 23:5, 14.

Verse 64       Matthew 27:40, 12:40, 28:13.

Verse 65       Matthew 12:45!

Verse 66      

 

 

Manuscripts

 

Through Reading 70A, January 30, 2011, I designed these notes on the availability of manuscripts to make the point that uncertainty exists about exactly what Greek to use for the purposes of translation.  At that point, I began offering manuscript availability for background when examining Translating the New Testament:  Text, Translation, Theology,  which I purchased based on the review in the Catholic Biblical Quarterly.[17]

 

Philippians 2:6-11

Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, 2nd ed., Erroll F. Rhodes, tr.[18]

P. Chester Beatty II in Dublin and University of Michigan in Ann Arbor (how they both have the same parchment mystifies me) have Philippians 1—4:18 dating from about the year 200.

 

Matthew 26:14—27:66

Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland, The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, 2nd ed., Erroll F. Rhodes, tr.[19]

Plate 13 is a photograph of a fragment of a Greek Gospel harmony found at Dura Europus (Tatian’s Diatessaron …): Matt. 27:56 and parallel.

The University of Michigan at Ann Arbor has a Third/Fourth Century papyrus with Matthew 26:19-52.

The University of Michigan at Ann Arbor has a Third Century papyrus with Matthew 26:29-40.

The Fundació Sant Lluc Evangelista in Barcelona has a papyrus dating from about 200 with Matthew 26:14-15, 22-23, 31-33.

Plate 32 is a black and white photograph (all of the Alands’ photographs are black and white) of a Sixth Century purple parchment manuscript famous for its almost full-page illustrations, but typically of the sumptuous manuscripts of the period it has little textual value.  Shown are Christ before Pilate (Matt. 27:2) and the repentance and death of Judas (Matt 17:3-5).

The Ukrainian National Library in Kiev has a Sixth Century parchment with Matthew 27:7-30; and another parchment with Matthew 26; another with Matthew 26:59-70; 27:44-56.  The Public Library in Leningrad has a parchment with Matthew 26.

The Biblioteca Nazionale in Naples has a parchment with Matthew 26:52—27:1.

The Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek in Vienna has an Eighth Century parchment with Matthew 28:5-19.

The Bodleian Library in Oxford has a Fourth Century parchment with Matthew 26:75—27:1, 3-4.

Nikanoros in Zavorda ha a Ninth Century Parchment with Matthew 5—26.

The Alands write, “at Matt. 1:1 in the marginal reference 18 Gn 5, 1; 22, 18 that the reference after the semicolon intends Gn 22, 18, while the 18 at the beginning, which stands without any indication of book or chapter, refers to Matt. 1:18.”

The Alands write,

In Matt. 27:9 the quotation in the text is ascribed to the prophet Jeremiah, although it is actually from Zech. 11:13; correspondingly in the manuscripts we find the information either omitted or corrected (cf. Nestle-Aland26 apparatus in loc.).  Quotations from the Old Testament which differ from the text of the Septuagint popular in the Church were often corrected to agree with it.

The Lectionary ascribes the quotation to Jeremiah.  Note above Zechariah 11:13 at Matthew 27:9.  That is what “italics of a different verse or book, indicates a direct quote” means.  I do not see this explained in Nestle-Aland27, but at this point, I am including the observation in the explanation of italics at the beginning of the Themes section above.

In a section “Smaller Omissions in the New Text,” The Alands write

In Matt. 27:35 the supplementary quotation from the Psalms is derived from John 19:24.  Besides the obvious presence of a devotional motive, the support in the manuscript tradition is so weak that no discussion is necessary (in the Nestle-Aland26 apparatus the evidence for omission is not even given).

 

In the Nestle-Aland27 I am using, the evidence for the omission is given, though I do not understand which manuscripts differ.

Concerning Matthew 26:74, the Alands write,

In Mark 14:68 the final words of the verse (kai alektwr efwnhsen) are placed in single brackets because the evidence for their omission is of considerable strength, and for their inclusion it is distinctly superior.  The internal criteria, however, are ambivalent.  It can be argued that the omission occurred because the accounts in the other Gospels mention only a single cockcrow, and the texts directly parallel to Mark 14:68 do not refer to it.  Yet on the other hand it can be argued that at the end of the pericope, where Matt. 26:74 and Luke 22:60 mention a cock’s crow, Mark 14:72 has the cockle crow ek deuterou and concludes with a reference to fwnhsai diV.  Of course there are manuscripts which omit both diV and ek deuterou, but their authority has little weight.  Both are evidently a part of the original text of the gospel of Mark.  The parenthetical phrase seems accordingly to belong to the structure of the account here.

Concerning Matt. 26:39, the Alands write,

Luke 22:43-44 is placed in double brackets in the Greek text.  This expresses the editors’ conviction that these verses were not a part of the original text of the gospel of Luke.  The fact that they were not removed and relegated to the apparatus, but retained in the text within double brackets (cf. the Pericope Adulterae), indicates that this is recognized as a very early tradition coming at least from the second century if not even earlier (attested by patristic quotations and allusions; cf. GNT3cor).  The external evidence leaves no doubt that these verses were added to the original text of Luke not just because the witness for their omission is so strong ( … ) and so forth; there is a further group of manuscripts which have the verses but with critical marks added to indicate their doubtful authenticity, as also at Mark 16:9-20).  These verses also exhibit a conclusive clue to their secondary nature (like the Pericope Adulterae) in the alternative locations for its insertion.  While the majority of the (now known) manuscripts place them at Luke 22:43-44, they are found after Matt 26:39 in the minuscule family 13 and in several lectionaries.  This kind of fluctuation in the New Testament main manuscript tradition is one of the surest evidences for the secondary character of a text.

Relative to Matt 26:26, the Alands write,

As for 1 Corinthians, one passage requires comment.  The textual variants in 1 Cor. 11:24 bear on only a detail of Paul’s account of the Last Supper.  Here the Majority text together with the traditional versions add at the beginning the words of institution labete fagete.  These words are taken from Matt. 26:26, and they represent nothing more than parallel assimilation, clearly opposed by the evidence of the textual tradition.



[1] San Francisco, CA 94103-1741:  A Wiley Imprint: 1998, 69, 72,73, 85, 88.

 

[2] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 4 (October 2009) 728.

 

[3] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 3 (July 2009) 517, 519, 520, 522-525.

 

[4] http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/  (accessed February 7, 2011).

 

[5] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 4 (October 2008) 836.

 

[6] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 1 (January 2009) 18.

 

[7] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 72, No. 4 (October 2010) 731.

 

[8] Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum: Graece et Latine: Textum Graecum post Eberhard et Erwin Nestle communiter ediderunt Barbara et Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, Bruce M. Metzger: Textus Latinus Novae Vulgatae Bibliorum Sacrorum Editioni debetur: Utriusque textus apparatum criticum recensuerent et editionem novis curis elaboraverunt Barbara et Kurt Aland una cum Instituto Studiorum Textus Novi Testamenti Monasterii Westphaliae (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft 1999) Editio XXVII, 34*.

 

[9] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 2 (April 2009) 428.

 

[10] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 1 (January 2009) 107, 119 (for the quotation), 123.

 

[11] http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06592a.htm  (accessed February 8, 2011).

 

[12] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 2 (April 2009) 252.

 

[13] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 3 (July 2009) 507.

 

[14] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 4 (October 2008) 714 ff.

 

[15] National Conference of Catholic Bishops, The Roman Missal Restored by Decree of the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and Promulgated by Authority of Pope Paul VI: Lectionary for Mass: For Use in the Dioceses of the United States of America: Second Typical Edition: Volume I: Sundays, Solemnities, Feasts of the Lord and Saints (Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1998) 243-244, 409-410.

 

[16] the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Vol. 72, No. 4 (October 2010) 753.

 

[17] Robert Hodgson, Jr., review of Translating the New Testament:  Text, Translation, Theology, Stanley E. Porter and Mark J. Boda (eds.) (Grand Rapids, Michigan:  William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2009), the Catholic Quarterly, Vol. 72, No. 4 (October 2010) 877-878.

 

[18] Grand Rapids, Michigan, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1989, 99.

 

[19] Grand Rapids, Michigan, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1989, 58, 98, 99, 100, 116, 119, 121, 123, 126, 127, 253, 290, 307, 308, 310, 311.